Radiology

Radiology

Radiology is a field of medicine where various imaging methods are used for the purpose of diagnosing and treating diseases. Below, we introduce you to the essence of different imaging methods and their practical applications in everyday clinical practice.

X-ray
X-ray is the most common radiological method. During the procedure, ionizing radiation or X-rays are used. However, with modern high-technology devices the radiation dose is kept minimal and the procedure is very fast. Most often, X-ray images are taken from the chest to visualize lungs, from the vertebra, and from different bones and joints (in case of a trauma, for example). In dentistry, orthopantomograms are used to visualize all teeth in one picture. Sometimes various contrast media are used in combination with X-ray, for example to evaluate the passability and function of the gastrointestinal tract.

Mammography
Mammography
is an X-ray study of the breast. Mammograph is a special instrument that helps to discover different breast diseases (especially breast cancer) in an early phase. Images are taken from two different directions to ascertain the exact location of the tumor. During the mammography procedure, the tumor can be marked with a special wire to facilitate its removal during surgery.

Ultrasound
Ultrasound, also called ultrasonography, is a method to visualize organs by means of ultrasound waves. The procedure is absolutely safe as no radiation is used. Ultrasound examinations are routinely performed in pregnant women as well. Ultrasound is the most useful for studying the internal organs, thyroid gland, blood vessels, joints, and soft tissues. In addition, ultrasound enables to assess the speed and direction of blood flow in blood vessels (for example, to exclude the possibility of thrombosis in the leg). It is not possible to study lungs, stomach, intestine or bones by means of ultrasound. Ultrasound is also used to take tissue samples (biopsies) and to insert drainage tubes and stents.

Computer tomography
Computer tomography (CT scan)
is a method to obtain layered and spatial images of the human body by using X-rays. As the radiation dose is much higher compared to an ordinary X-ray, this procedure is undertaken only in case of specific need. In certain cases contrast medium is injected in the vein before the scan to make the image more informative. When the procedure is performed without contrast medium, it is called a native scan. Computer tomography can be used to study the head (including the brain), neck, heart, lungs, stomach, pelvis, and vertebra.

Magnetic resonance imaging
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan)
is an imaging method based on strong magnetic field. As no X-rays are used, no harmful ionizing radiation is involved and the radiation dose is zero. Similarly to computer tomography, contrast medium can be used in MRI scan to facilitate the detection of pathologies. Magnetic resonance imaging can be used to visualize the head, different joints, vertebra, stomach, pelvis, heart, blood vessels, and other structures of the body.

Angiography
Angiography
is used to visualize the lumen of blood vessels and assess the condition of the arteries, veins and heart chambers. During the procedure, contrast medium is injected in the vein to enhance the image. To assess blood vessels, series of images are taken by means of a special X-ray apparatus that reveal how the contrast medium flows in the vessels. By means of a thin tube (catheter) that is guided into the artery, a metal mesh (stent) can be inserted in the narrow segments of the artery to remove blockages and improve blood flow. Angiography can be combined with computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

Services:

    • Lower extremity venous ultrasonography

      177 clinics

      Ultrasound, also called ultrasonography, is a method of diagnostic imaging whereby high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) are used to visualize soft tissues. Ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries enables to evaluate blood flow in leg arteries, and diagnose thrombosis or atherosclerotic changes. Ultrasound has no contraindications, involves no radiation, is painless and safe, and can be performed during pregnancy as well.

    • Neck ultrasonography (thyroid ultrasound)

      30 clinics

      Thyroid ultrasound enables to determine the size and structure of the thyroid gland, and to discover cysts and nodules in the thyroid. Ultrasound has no contraindications, involves no radiation, is painless and safe, and can be performed during pregnancy as well.

    • Abdominal ultrasound

      209 clinics

      Ultrasound, also called ultrasonography, is a method of diagnostic imaging whereby high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) are used to visualize soft tissues. Abdominal ultrasound enables to determine the anatomy of the abdominal organs (liver, kidneys, pancreas, and others) and to discover tumors and other growths in a timely manner. Ultrasound has no contraindications, involves no radiation, and is painless and safe.

    • Ultrasound of a joint structure

      184 clinics

      Ultrasound, also called ultrasonography, is a method of diagnostic imaging whereby high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) are used to visualize soft tissues. Ultrasound of a joint enables to evaluate the health of the joint structure and to detect changes in bones that are not yet visible in X-ray. Possibility to observe a joint in motion is an additional advantage of this method. Ultrasound has no contraindications, involves no radiation, is painless and safe, and can be performed during pregnancy as well.

    • Breast ultrasound

      24 clinics

      Breast ultrasound enables to evaluate the inside structure of the breast, and detect tumors and other suspicious growths. By using ultrasound, it is possible to determine, if the growth is a liquid-filled benign cyst or a solid nodule from where a biopsy should be taken. Ultrasound has no contraindications, involves no radiation, is painless and safe, and can be performed during pregnancy as well.

    • Transvaginal ultrasound

      27 clinics

      Sonohysterography or transvaginal ultrasound enables to evaluate the inner structure of the uterus, discover polyps and myoma nodules, measure their size, and diagnose abnormalities and blocks of fallopian tubes. Ultrasound, also called ultrasonography, is a method of diagnostic imaging whereby high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) are used to visualize soft tissues. Ultrasound has no contraindications, involves no radiation, is painless and safe, and can be performed during pregnancy as well.

    • MRI of the ankle

      68 clinics

      MRI of the ankle is the method of choice for evaluating the soft tissues of the ankle joint and for diagnosing tendon, ligament and nerve pathologies. As MRI uses a strong magnetic field, it is necessary to inform your physician before the scan, if you have metallic prostheses or a cardiac pacemaker.

    • MRI of abdomen

      68 clinics

      MRI scan is one of the methods of diagnostic imaging whereby a strong magnetic field, radio waves and a computer are used to visualize tissues. With the MRI scan of the abdominal region, abdominal organs and blood vessels can be evaluated. Abdominal MRI scan is used for evaluating blood flow, detecting the reason for pain or inflammation, and measuring lymph nodes. As MRI uses a strong magnetic field, it is necessary to inform your physician before the scan, if you have metallic prostheses or a cardiac pacemaker.

    • Abdominal MRI with and without contrast

      64 clinics

      MRI scan is one of the methods of diagnostic imaging whereby a strong magnetic field, radio waves and a computer are used to visualize tissues. The so-called native MRI scan of the abdomen (i.e. without contrast medium) helps to find changes in the structure of organs and other tissues, and detect an infection or a tumor. Sometimes contrast medium, injected in the vein before the MRI scan, is used to better visualize certain structures. For example, the contrast medium helps to control the integrity of blood vessels, differentiate between certain tumors, and visualize infection sites. As MRI uses a strong magnetic field, it is necessary to inform your physician before the scan, if you have metallic prostheses or a cardiac pacemaker.

    • Cervical spine MRI

      66 clinics

      MRI scan is one of the methods of diagnostic imaging whereby a strong magnetic field, radio waves and a computer are used to visualize tissues. Cervical spine MRI helps to evaluate the soft tissues and the spine in the neck region. This study is used to diagnose tumors and other pathologies of bones or soft tissues, evaluate disc herniation, and detect aneurysms of arteries and other vascular pathologies. As MRI uses a strong magnetic field, it is necessary to inform your physician before the scan, if you have metallic prostheses or a cardiac pacemaker.

    • MRI of spine with contrast

      67 clinics

      MRI scan is one of the methods of diagnostic imaging whereby a strong magnetic field, radio waves and a computer are used to visualize tissues. MRI of spine with contrast enables to visualize the blood vessels of the spine and helps to detect tumors and infections. The contrast medium is injected in the vein. As MRI uses a strong magnetic field, it is necessary to inform your physician before the scan, if you have metallic prostheses or a cardiac pacemaker.

    • Lumbar spine MRI

      71 clinics

      MRI scan is one of the methods of diagnostic imaging whereby a strong magnetic field, radio waves and a computer are used to visualize tissues. Lumbar spine MRI helps to evaluate the soft tissues and the spine in the lumbar region. For example, this study is used to diagnose tumors and other pathologies of bones or soft tissues, evaluate disc herniation, and detect aneurysms of arteries and other vascular pathologies. Medical indications of the scan include lower back traumas, permanent strong lower back pain, the diagnosis of sclerosis multiplex, and urinary incontinence, fever and/or weakness of lower limbs accompanying back pain. As MRI uses a strong magnetic field, it is necessary to inform your physician before the scan, if you have metallic prostheses or a cardiac pacemaker.

    • Thoracic spine MRI

      67 clinics

      MRI scan is one of the methods of diagnostic imaging whereby a strong magnetic field, radio waves and a computer are used to visualize tissues. Thoracic spine MRI helps to evaluate the soft tissues and the spine in the thoracic region. For example, this study is used to diagnose tumors and other pathologies of bones or soft tissues, evaluate disc herniation, and detect aneurysms of arteries and other vascular pathologies. Medical indications of the scan include thoracic traumas, permanent strong lower back pain and the diagnosis of sclerosis multiplex. As MRI uses a strong magnetic field, it is necessary to inform your physician before the scan, if you have metallic prostheses or a cardiac pacemaker.

    • MRI of knee

      69 clinics

      MRI scan is one of the methods of diagnostic imaging whereby a strong magnetic field, radio waves and a computer are used to visualize tissues. MRI scan of the knee is the best method to assess the soft tissues of the knee joint and to diagnose tendon, meniscus, ligament and nerve pathologies. Medical indications of the scan include arthritis, bone fractures, permanent knee pain, swelling, knee joint trauma, bone infections and tumors. As MRI uses a strong magnetic field, it is necessary to inform your physician before the scan, if you have metallic prostheses or a cardiac pacemaker.

    • MRI of shoulder

      69 clinics

      MRI scan is one of the methods of diagnostic imaging whereby a strong magnetic field, radio waves and a computer are used to visualize tissues. MRI scan of the shoulder is the best method to assess the soft tissues of the shoulder joint and to diagnose tendon, ligament and nerve pathologies. Medical indications of the scan include arthritis, bone fractures, shoulder rotator cuff tear, shoulder pain, swelling, shoulder joint trauma, bone infections and tumors. As MRI uses a strong magnetic field, it is necessary to inform your physician before the scan, if you have metallic prostheses or a cardiac pacemaker.

    • MRI of head

      71 clinics

      MRI scan is one of the methods of diagnostic imaging whereby a strong magnetic field, radio waves and a computer are used to visualize tissues. MRI scan of the head is used to study the brain and brainstem. MRI is the most sensitive method to diagnose brain tumors, aneurysms and ischemic brain lesions. MRI scan is often more informative than CT scan. As MRI uses a strong magnetic field, it is necessary to inform your physician before the scan, if you have metallic prostheses or a cardiac pacemaker.

    • MRI of head and MRA of head

      66 clinics

      So-called native MRI scan (performed without contrast medium) is used to study the brain and brainstem. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the head involves the use of contrast medium, which first and foremost helps to visualize cerebral blood vessels to diagnose aneurysms of arteries and congenital vascular malformations, evaluate the condition of blood vessels and the extent of a hematoma after infarction, and assess the extent of a trauma. The contrast medium is injected in the vein. MRI is the most sensitive method to diagnose brain tumors, aneurysms and ischemic brain lesions. MRI scan is often more informative than CT scan. As MRI uses a strong magnetic field, it is necessary to inform your physician before the scan, if you have metallic prostheses or a cardiac pacemaker.

    • MRI of head with and without contrast

      68 clinics

      So-called native MRI scan (performed without contrast medium) is used to study the brain and brainstem. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the head involves the use of contrast medium, which first and foremost helps to visualize cerebral blood vessels to diagnose aneurysms of arteries and congenital vascular malformations, evaluate the condition of blood vessels and the extent of a hematoma after infarction, and assess the extent of a trauma. The contrast medium is injected in the vein. MRI is the most sensitive method to diagnose brain tumors, aneurysms and ischemic brain lesions. MRI scan is often more informative than CT scan. As MRI uses a strong magnetic field, it is necessary to inform your physician before the scan, if you have metallic prostheses or a cardiac pacemaker.

    • MRI of knee with contrast

      63 clinics

      MRI scan is one of the methods of diagnostic imaging whereby a strong magnetic field, radio waves and a computer are used to visualize tissues. MRI scan of the knee is the best method to assess the soft tissues of the knee joint and to diagnose tendon, meniscus, ligament and nerve pathologies. The use of contrast medium during the MRI scan helps to assess the blood vessels in the knee region, and to visualize a tumor or an inflamed area. The contrast medium is injected in the vein. Medical indications of the scan include arthritis, bone fractures, permanent knee pain, swelling, knee joint trauma, bone infections and tumors. As MRI uses a strong magnetic field, it is necessary to inform your physician before the scan, if you have metallic prostheses or a cardiac pacemaker.

    • MRI of the wrist

      67 clinics

      MRI of the wrist makes it possible to exactly evaluate the reason for the pain and numbness in the wrist. For example, this method enables to diagnose carpal tunnel syndrome and to detect a tumor in its early phase. Medical indications of the scan include inflammation of the wrist region, suspected tumor, numbness and pain, bone deformities and trauma. As MRI uses a strong magnetic field, it is necessary to inform your physician before the scan, if you have metallic prostheses or a cardiac pacemaker.

    • Cardiac MRI

      62 clinics

      Cardiac MRI enables to evaluate the size of the heart chambers, the thickness of the myocardium, the extent of post-infarction damage and heart pump function reduction, and stenosis and calcification of coronary arteries. This method is also useful for following changes during the treatment and rehabilitation period. As MRI uses a strong magnetic field, it is necessary to inform your physician before the scan, if you have metallic prostheses or a cardiac pacemaker.

    • MRI of pelvis

      64 clinics

      MRI scan of the pelvis region enables to assess the bladder, rectum, sigmoid colon and reproductive organs. With this method, pathological changes or tumors in the lesser pelvis can be detected in the early stage. Medical indications of the scan include, for example, permanent pain in the lower belly or sacrum region, trauma to organs of the lesser pelvis, suspected tumor or metastases, and inflammation of the organs of the lesser pelvis. As MRI uses a strong magnetic field, it is necessary to inform your physician before the scan, if you have metallic prostheses or a cardiac pacemaker.

    • MRI of pelvis with and without contrast

      63 clinics

      MRI scan is one of the methods of diagnostic imaging whereby a strong magnetic field, radio waves and a computer are used to visualize tissues. MRI scan of the pelvis region enables to assess the bladder, rectum, sigmoid colon and reproductive organs. With this method, pathological changes or tumors in the lesser pelvis can be detected in the early stage. The most detailed images are obtained by using contrast medium, which helps to visualize blood vessels and small inflammatory foci. The contrast medium is injected in the vein. Medical indications of the scan include, for example, permanent pain in the lower belly or sacrum region, trauma to organs of the lesser pelvis, suspected tumor or metastases, and inflammation of the organs of the lesser pelvis. As MRI uses a strong magnetic field, it is necessary to inform your physician before the scan, if you have metallic prostheses or a cardiac pacemaker.

    • Hip X-ray

      46 clinics

      Hip X-ray is a radiological method of diagnostic imaging for the visualization of the hip joint and the primary diagnostics of its pathologies (e.g. arthrosis or fracture).

    • Paranasal sinus radiography

      198 clinics

      Paranasal sinus radiography is a method of diagnostic imaging to diagnose sinusitis (inflammation of the sinus cavities).

    • Mammography (mammogram)

      148 clinics

      Mammography is a radiological method of diagnostic imaging to diagnose breast cancer.

    • Lumbosacral spine X-ray

      185 clinics

      Lumbosacral spine X-ray is a radiological method of diagnostic imaging for the primary diagnostics of the pathologies of the lumbosacral vertebrae (e.g. degeneration of the intervertebral discs).

    • Knee joint X-ray

      181 clinics

      Knee joint X-ray is a radiological method of diagnostic imaging for the visualization of the knee joint and the primary diagnostics of its pathologies (e.g. arthrosis or fracture).

    • Chest X-ray (CXR)

      207 clinics

      Chest X-ray is the most common radiological method of diagnostic imaging. This method which enables to visualize the chest region, can be used for diagnosing lung-related problems, such as pneumonia, tuberculosis or tumor.

    • Dental radiography

      272 clinics

      Dental radiography or dental X-ray is a simple and informative method of diagnostic imaging used for planning dental treatment and evaluating its effectiveness. Dental radiography enables to assess the structure of a tooth and the condition of its surrounding tissues. Radiography helps to evaluate the depth and extent of caries, diagnose dental developmental anomalies, and assess the condition of bone tissue in case of parodontosis or periodontitis. Dental radiography gives a small radiation dose.

    • Panoramic dental X-ray

      280 clinics

      Panoramic dental X-ray is a simple and informative method of diagnostic imaging used for planning dental treatment and evaluating its effectiveness. Panoramic dental X-ray provides a detailed image of the structure of the teeth and their surrounding tissue. Nowadays many different panoramic dental X-ray programs are used to adjust the shooting angle so that only a specific region or all the teeth are visualized, depending on the aim of the procedure. X-ray helps to plan the insertion of an implant, evaluate the depth and extent of caries, diagnose dental developmental anomalies, and assess the condition of bone tissue in case of parodontosis or periodontitis. Panoramic dental X-ray gives a small radiation dose.

    • 3D X-ray of the maxilla or mandible

      18 clinics

      Ordinary X-ray gives a two-dimensional image, but 3D X-ray enables to construct a spatial image of the head, bringing forth all the anatomical structures that have to be taken into account when planning treatment procedures. During 3D X-ray, hundreds of image layers are registered from the region of interest from different angles. From this data, a 3D image is constructed in the computer. This procedure facilitates the designing of implants, planning of surgeries, diagnosing serious diseases, and assessing dental occlusion, the condition of tissues around the tooth and the health of the temporomandibular joints. Depending on the aim of the study, it is possible to visualize both maxilla and mandible, only one of them or only half of one. 3D X-ray gives a somewhat higher radiation dose than dental radiography.

    • 3D X-ray of half of the maxilla or mandible

      13 clinics

      Ordinary X-ray gives a two-dimensional image, but 3D X-ray enables to construct a spatial image of the head, bringing forth all the anatomical structures that have to be taken into account when planning treatment procedures. During 3D X-ray, hundreds of image layers are registered from the region of interest from different angles. From this data, a 3D image is constructed in the computer. This procedure facilitates the designing of implants, planning of surgeries, diagnosing serious diseases, and assessing dental occlusion, the condition of tissues around the tooth and the health of the temporomandibular joints. Depending on the aim of the study, it is possible to visualize both maxilla and mandible, only one of them or only half of one. 3D X-ray gives a somewhat higher radiation dose than dental radiography.

    • 3D X-ray of both maxilla and mandible

      64 clinics

      Ordinary X-ray gives a two-dimensional image, but 3D X-ray enables to construct a spatial image of the head, bringing forth all the anatomical structures that have to be taken into account when planning treatment procedures. During 3D X-ray, hundreds of image layers are registered from the region of interest from different angles. From this data, a 3D image is constructed in the computer. This procedure facilitates the designing of implants, planning of surgeries, diagnosing serious diseases, and assessing dental occlusion, the condition of tissues around the tooth and the health of the temporomandibular joints. Depending on the aim of the study, it is possible to visualize both maxilla and mandible, only one of them or only half of one. 3D X-ray gives a somewhat higher radiation dose than dental radiography.

    • Wrist X-ray

      191 clinics

      Wrist X-ray is a radiological method of diagnostic imaging to assess the condition of the wrist joint. It is used as the primary method to diagnose fractures of the wrist joint and the lower end of the radius and ulna. Wrist X-ray is also used to assess other changes in the joint and bony structures such as arthrosis and bone tumors.

    • Shoulder X-ray

      177 clinics

      Shoulder X-ray is a radiological method of diagnostic imaging to assess the condition of the shoulder joint. It is used as the primary method to diagnose diseases and assess bony changes in the upper humerus, upper scapula and the outermost end of the clavicle (arthrosis, dislocation or fracture).

    • X-ray of the thoracic spine

      175 clinics

      Thoracic spine X-ray is a radiological method of diagnostic imaging to assess the condition of the thoracic spine (thoracic vertebrae). It is used as the primary method to diagnose spine pathologies such as injuries, tumors and age-related changes or arthrosis.

    • Ankle X-ray

      176 clinics

      Ankle X-ray is a radiological method of diagnostic imaging to assess the condition of the ankle joint. It is used as the primary method to visualize bony structures and diagnose diseases of the ankle joint (arthrosis, bony changes or fracture).

    • Calcaneus X-ray

      54 clinics

      Calcaneus X-ray is a radiological method of diagnostic imaging to assess the condition of the heel and calcaneus (heel bone). It is used as the primary method to assess bony changes in the calcaneus and diagnose diseases (dislocation or fracture).

    • Foot X-ray

      176 clinics

      Foot X-ray is a radiological method of diagnostic imaging to assess the condition of the foot and metatarsus. It is used as the primary method to assess the bony structures of the foot and diagnose diseases (arthrosis, bony changes or fracture).

    • X-ray of the cervical spine

      42 clinics

      Neck X-ray is a radiological method of diagnostic imaging to assess the condition of the cervical (neck) region of the vertebra. It is used as the primary method to diagnose vertebra injuries, overload and age-related arthritic changes.

    • Computed tomography (CT) scan of the head

      7 clinics

      Computed tomography (CT) scan of the head is a method of diagnostic imaging, which enables to make detailed layered and spatial images of the head. During the procedure, the X-ray tube circles around the patient, taking series of pictures from different angles, which are put together in a computer to form a three-dimensional image of the head. So-called native CT scan (performed without contrast medium) enables to visualize the skull bones and the structures of the brain; if contrast is used, blood vessels of the brain become visible as well. CT scan can be used to diagnose and evaluate the extent of cerebral infarction, detect vascular pathologies, and diagnose skull bone fractures and some brain or bone tumors. CT scan is not performed without medical indications as the radiation dose received during the study is quite high. Native CT scan of the head gives the same radiation dose as 300-400 lung X-rays and with contrast medium the dose is twice higher.

    • Cardiac computed tomography (CT)

      2 clinics

      Cardiac computed tomography or cardiac CT scan is a method of diagnostic imaging, which enables to make detailed layered and spatial images of the heart. During the procedure, the X-ray tube circles around the patient, taking series of pictures from different angles, which are put together in a computer. To visualize coronary arteries, iodine-containing contrast medium is injected intravenously – the other name of this method is CT angiography. Cardiac CT enables to diagnose and evaluate ischemic heart disease, coronary artery atherosclerosis, pathology of the aorta, pulmonary embolism, pathology of pulmonary veins, and defects of heart valves. CT scan is not performed without medical indications as the radiation dose received during the study is quite high. Native CT scan of the chest region gives the same radiation dose as 600-800 lung X-rays and with contrast medium the dose is twice higher.

    • Pelvic computed tomography (CT)

      1 clinic

      Pelvic computed tomography or pelvic CT scan is a method of diagnostic imaging, which enables to make detailed layered and spatial images of the pelvic region. During the procedure, the X-ray tube circles around the patient, taking series of pictures from different angles, which are put together in a computer. So-called native CT scan (performed without contrast medium) enables to visualize the internal organs and bones; if contrast is used, blood vessels of the pelvic region become visible as well. CT scan can be used to diagnose and evaluate bone fractures, bone and soft tissue tumors, gynecological pathologies, and vascular pathologies. CT scan is not performed without medical indications as the radiation dose received during the study is quite high. Native CT scan of the pelvic region gives the same radiation dose as 600-800 lung X-rays and with contrast medium the dose is twice higher.

    • Abdominal computed tomography (CT)

      3 clinics

      Abdominal computed tomography or pelvic CT scan is a method of diagnostic imaging, which enables to make detailed layered and spatial images of the abdominal region. During the procedure, the X-ray tube circles around the patient, taking series of pictures from different angles, which are put together in a computer. So-called native CT scan (performed without contrast medium) enables to visualize the internal organs and vertebra; if contrast is used, blood vessels of the abdominal region become visible as well. Abdominal CT scan can be used to diagnose and evaluate the pathologies of the internal organs and blood vessels. CT scan is not performed without medical indications as the radiation dose received during the study is quite high. Native CT scan of the abdominal region gives the same radiation dose as 600-800 lung X-rays and with contrast medium the dose is twice higher.