Psychology (in Greek psyche means “soul” and logos means “study”) is a science of mental processes, behavior and their interrelations. Psychology studies the mental and spiritual life of man and its ways of manifestation. Clinical psychology or medical psychology is a specialty where psychological knowledge is used to understand, predict and alleviate intellectual, emotional, psychological and behavioral disorders and disabilities. Psychologist is a specialist with higher education who studies and treats psychological and mental disorders and gives relevant advice. Clinical psychologists assess the intellectual development and train of thought of a person, and his or her personality characteristics and deviations. Psychologists help people to cope with emotional tensions, fight depression, treat simple phobias and anxiety disorders, and improve relationships with other people. Differently from a psychiatrist, a psychologist is not authorized to prescribe medications. A psychiatrist has graduated from a medical school and finished residency training in psychiatry, however, psychologists have a separate curriculum at the universities. A psychiatrist can assess, diagnose and treat people with psychiatric problems, and monitor the course of their disease. A psychologist, on the other hand, primarily uses different consulting and psychotherapy methods. The most common psychotherapy methods are cognitive behavioral therapy, group therapy, family therapy and psychoanalytic psychotherapy.
The most famous schools or forms of psychology are psychoanalytic (psychoanalytic therapy), behavioral psychology, cognitive psychology and humanistic psychology.
Psychoanalytic therapy is based on the idea that our behavior, thoughts and attitudes are to a large extent led by the unconscious part of the psyche that is not under our conscious control. The psychotherapist encourages the client to speak about his or her feelings, helping him or her to understand his or her unconscious needs and motivations and the associations between current behavior and childhood experiences. The aim of the psychoanalytic therapy is to improve the client’s conscious control over his or her life and actions.
Cognitive behavioral therapy is based on the notion that negative trains of thought induce negative emotions. The organism reacts to these negative emotions and this leads to inappropriate behavior or even avoidance of certain actions. Disturbing feelings and emotions that a person is experiencing and his or her inappropriate behavior are thus caused by negative interpretation of life events and wrong thinking patterns. Negative thoughts are considered to derive from personal attitudes and coping strategies acquired during the life-time. There are several different cognitive behavioral therapies and in different disorders different techniques are applied.
Group therapy is a method of self-discovery that enables to work through one’s problematic aspects of life in a group setting with the help of other people. In group therapy, self-help techniques are taught to cope with anxiety, stress and burnout, and to prevent depression from coming back. Discussions in group meetings concentrate on sharing experiences acquired through learning and applying self-help skills, not on discussing the participants’ personal life difficulties and problems. The aim is to acquire skills that help to cope with unpleasant experiences. Quite often, participants in group therapy report an increase in peace of mind and self-acceptance, resulting in better emotion and reaction control.
Family therapy is directed to solving problems and conflicts that may arise between family members. It is a widely used method of psychotherapy, whereby interpersonal problems with friends, relatives and other important people are systematically addressed. The aim of family therapy is to improve communication between family members and the quality of relationships, and also to help the family to cope with different crisis situations. Besides improving coping skills, family therapy often leads to better understanding and greater emotional support among family members. Also, in therapy, family members learn how to solve the problems that may arise in everyday life.
Psychologist’s consultation22 clinics
A psychologist is a specialist with a higher education who studies, consults and treats people with psychological or mental disorders. A clinical psychologist assesses the intellectual development, train of thought and personality characteristics of a person and helps him or her to cope with emotional stress, overcome depression, phobias and anxiety disorders or improve human relationships. Unlike a psychiatrist, a psychologist has no right to prescribe psychiatric medications. During the appointment, a psychologist uses different counseling and psychotherapy methods. The most popular psychotherapy methods are cognitive behavioral therapy, group therapy, family therapy and psychoanalytic psychotherapy.
Dietitian’s consultation21 clinics
A dietitian or a nutritionist is a healthcare professional who focuses specifically on human nutrition and exercise habits. Dietitians help clients to change their eating habits for the better, and draw up an individual plan for each client. The aim of the dietitian is to help the client to lose or, if necessary, to gain weight through balanced and healthy nutrition. Losing excess weight (lowering body fat percentage) and a healthy diet are very important in the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and others.