Plastic surgery, cosmetic surgery, aesthetic surgery – this specialty has many names. Plastic surgery can help people who feel that their appearance impairs their quality of life. Thanks to the fact that people have become more knowledgeable and methods have been improved, plastic surgery has become more and more available. During the last years, the most popular services have been breast operations, eyelid surgery, abdominoplasty, and different anti-wrinkle injections. Earlier, it was usual to consult a plastic surgeon after the changes had already occurred. However, a new trend is so-called preventive plastic surgery – an aesthetic problem is solved before it becomes serious. No doubt that this approach guarantees a better result and, as a bonus, is less expensive. Also, many women decide to invest in their body after giving birth and repair the damages to the body related to child-bearing. The following are the most common plastic surgery services:
Breast augmentation: the operation is performed under general anesthesia and usually lasts an hour or two. During the consultation with the surgeon, an implant with a suitable size and shape is selected to achieve the most natural and beautiful result. Modern silicone implants have undergone a revolutionary development and their safety and quality are guaranteed.
Breast reduction: if the breasts are unproportionately large and cause uncomfort or even health problems, breast reduction operation can be a solution.
Breast lift: depending on the desired result, the breasts are only lifted or an implant is also installed at the same time.
Abdominoplasty: when the abdominal skin has become loose and sagged after pregnancy or big weight loss, removal of excessive skin and fat tissue could be a solution.
Liposuction: this procedure enables to remove excessive fat tissue from different body regions when noninvasive methods (diet and physical activity) are not effective.
Rhinoplasty: one of the most common cosmetic face surgeries which aims to modify the shape of the nose. Reasons for this surgery include hooked nose, too large or long nose, nose tip with unsatisfactory appearance or deviated nose. To correct the aesthetic appearance of the nose, the size, shape and position of the cartilage and bones of the nose are modified.
Otoplasty: this surgery can effectively help those who are worried about the position and shape of their ears (protruding ears, for example).
Eyelid surgery: it is inevitable that when we get older, our face skin becomes looser and “bags” form under the eyes. Drooping eyelids may even interfere with normal vision. One solution is to lift the eyelids. During this surgery, excessive fat tissue and skin is removed from the eyelids. Facelift and necklift are similar procedures. During these operations, excessive loose skin is removed and subcutaneous tissues are tightened in the problematic region.
Hair transplantation: this procedure can help in case of baldness (alopecia). Hair follicles taken from a “donor” site are relocated to a bald site.
Filler injections: this is one possibility to stop aging and maintain a youthful look. Filler injections enable to decrease wrinkles on the forehead and around the eyes, and restore the shape and fullness of the lips. Filler injections can be combined with botox injections to achieve an even better result.
Labiaplasty is a type of cosmetic surgery to change the shape of external female genitalia (labia). By means of surgery, it is possible to reduce the size of the inner or outer labia or to remove a disturbing skin fold near the clitoris. The operation, which lasts about an hour, is performed under local anesthesia. For three weeks after the operation, strenuous physical activity should be avoided.
Breast augmentation with implants35 clinics
Breast augmentation with implants is a cosmetic surgical procedure to achieve the desired breast size. Insertion of implants is often combined with the breast lift procedure to modify the shape of the breasts. As there a many different implants available, their insertion and positioning may vary, too. Implants can be inserted from under the breast, from the axillary region or though areolar incision. The implant is positioned in front of the breast muscle, partially behind the muscle, or completely behind the muscle. During the consultation, a suitable method is chosen with the patient. The operation is performed under general anesthesia. To get a better outcome, a compression bra should be worn for 1–3 months after the operation.
Breast lift36 clinics
Breast lift or mastopexy is a surgical procedure to give the breasts a new shape. The service described in this section is a breast lift without implants. During the operation, excessive loose skin is removed from the breasts and the remaining skin is tightened. At the same time, the breasts are lifted upwards and given a new shape. For breast lift, different methods are used, depending on the aim of the operation and the suitability for the patient: 1) areola reduction or Benelli lift; 2) vertical breast lift or lollipop; 3) horizontal mastopexy and 4) anchor or inverted T mastopexy. During the consultation, a suitable method is chosen with the patient. Breast lift operation is performed under general anesthesia.
Breast lift with Implants13 clinics
Breast lift with implants is a surgical procedure to give the breasts a new shape and size by means of implants. Quite often, implants are used during the breast lift procedure to change the size of the breasts as well. During the operation, the breasts are lifted and given a new shape; also, an implant is inserted. As there are many different implants available, their insertion and positioning may vary, too. Implants can be inserted from under the breast, from the axillary region or though areolar incision. The implant is positioned in front of the breast muscle, partially behind the muscle, or completely behind the muscle. During the consultation, a suitable method is chosen with the patient.
Male breast reduction29 clinics
Male breast reduction is a surgical procedure to solve different problems related to gynecomastia (enlargement of male breasts). The extent of the operation depends on the reason for enlargement – it can result from fat tissue proliferation or enlargement of the glandular tissue, but sometimes the main problem is loose skin after weight loss. Excessive fat tissue can be removed with liposuction. Enlarged glandular tissue is removed through a small incision made under the nipple. Removal of excessive skin after weight loss is the most extensive one of the gynecomastia operations. During the skin removal, quite often the nipple must also be lifted to a suitable height. The best result is often obtained by combining the above methods. The operation is performed under general anesthesia. To get a better outcome, a compression dressing should be worn for 2–6 months after the operation.
Removal of breast implants26 clinics
Removal of breast implants is a surgical procedure to remove an implant that was inserted at some earlier time. Breast implants are often removed for esthetical reasons. The patient may not be satisfied with the result of the operation, for example. Also, implants may need to be removed after body weight change or pregnancy, which has led to a change in the shape of breasts. Some patients want to replace the implant with a more modern or bigger one. Sometimes there are also medical indications to remove the implant, such as bacterial infection or autoimmune inflammation in response to the inserted foreign body. Other indications for the removal are implant rupture, excessive scar tissue formation, and implant displacement. The operation is performed under general anesthesia.
Breast reconstruction with abdominal flap4 clinics
Breast reconstruction with abdominal flap or breast reconstruction with the TRAM method (transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneus) is a reconstructive plastic surgery operation whereby the removed breast is replaced with a three-layered flap (consisting of the skin, fat tissue and muscle tissue) taken from the lower abdominal region. The TRAM operation enables to replace the breast with the patient’s own tissues. The operation will leave a long scar on the abdomen, extending from one hip bone to the other. The TRAM method cannot be used if the patient has had an abdominal operation, plans to become pregnant or is over- or underweight. The result of the operation – the final new appearance of the breast – can be evaluated only after six months.
Breast reconstruction with latissimus dorsi flap4 clinics
Breast reconstruction with latissimus dorsi flap or the LD method is a reconstructive plastic surgery operation whereby the removed breast is replaced with a three-layered flap (consisting of the skin, fat tissue and muscle tissue) taken from the back. During the operation, the latissimus dorsi flap is relocated through a tunnel under the skin to the breast region, while maintaining the blood supply to the donor flap. The LD breast reconstruction enables to replace the breast with the patient’s own tissues. LD reconstruction is suitable for slender women whose abdomen is too small to be used as a donor site for the flap and for those who have small or medium-sized breasts. To reconstruct a big breast, an implant should be used in addition to the donor flap as the donor flap does not contain enough fat tissue. The result of the operation – the final new appearance of the breast – can be evaluated only after six months.
Breast reduction53 clinics
Breast reduction is a surgical procedure to modify the size and shape of the breasts. During the operation, excessive breast tissue is removed and the remaining skin tightened. At the same time, the breasts are lifted and given a new shape. Breast reduction decreases load on back, neck and shoulders, thereby alleviating tension and pain in these regions. For breast reduction, different methods are used: 1) areola reduction or Benelli lift; 2) vertical breast lift or lollipop; 3) horizontal mastopexy and 4) anchor or inverted T mastopexy. During the consultation, the plastic surgeon and the patient will together choose the most suitable method. The operation is performed under general anesthesia, regardless of the method used. To get a better outcome, a compression bra should be worn for up to 6 months after the operation.
Abdominoplasty (tummy tuck)43 clinics
Abdominoplasty or tummy tuck procedure is an operation, which helps to get rid of the hanging belly. Sometimes it is not necessary to change the position of the belly button and small or partial abdominoplasty is enough to solve the cosmetic problem. During the operation, excessive belly fat and loose skin are removed. Compared to great abdominoplasty, the incision is much smaller and usually there is no need to correct the belly button region. Small abdominoplasty can also be combined with liposuction (fat removal).
Plastic surgeon’s consultation37 clinics
A plastic surgeon is specializes in reconstructive and cosmetic surgical procedures. During the first appointment, surgical treatment is usually not performed. First, the plastic surgeon examines and consults the patient, and prescribes necessary tests and analyses. After that, an appropriate treatment is chosen together with the patient. Plastic surgeons perform procedures at both clinical indications and at the patient’s request. Clinical indications include correcting a serious visual defect in patient’s appearance, such as breast reconstruction after tumor removal. However, at the patient’s request, plastic surgeons perform purely aesthetic operations like breast augmentation or liposuction as well.